Common skin disease in which pimples, often containing
pus, appear on face, neck and shoulders.
Abbreviation for adrenocorticotrophic hormone. One of the
many hormones produced by the anterior
lobe of the pituitary gland. ACTH controls the outer part,
rind or cortex of the adrenal glands. When ACTH is
injected it dramatically relieves arthritic pain, but it
has many undesirable side effects, among which is a
condition similar to severe obesity. ACTH is now usually
replaced by cortisone.
Hormone produced by the inner part of the
Among many other functions, adrenalin
is concerned with blood pressure, emotional stress, fear
Endocrine glands. Small bodies situated atop the
kidneys and hence also known as suprarenal
glands. The adrenals have an outer rind or cortex which
produces vitally important hormones, among which are
Cortisone similar substances. The adrenal cortex is
controlled by ACTH. The inner part of the adrenals, the
medulla, secretes adrenalin and is chiefly controlled by
the autonomous nervous system.
Synthetic drugs which reduce the awareness of hunger
and stimulate mental activity, rendering sleep impossible.
When used for the latter two purposes they are dangerously
habit-forming. They do not diminish the body's need for
food, but merely suppress the perception of that need. The
original drug was
known as Benzedrine, from which modern variants such as
Dexedrine, Dexamil, and Preludin have been derived.
Amphetamines may help an obese patient to prevent a
further increase in weight but are unsatisfactory for
reducing, as they do not cure the underlying disorder and
as their prolonged use may lead to malnutrition and
Hardening of the arterial wall through the calcification
of abnormal deposits of a fatlike substance known as
Authors of a test by which early pregnancy can be
diagnosed by injecting a woman's urine into female mice.
The HCG present in pregnancy urine produces certain
changes in the vagina of these animals. Many similar
tests, using other animals such as rabbits, frogs, etc.
have been devised.
Absorbed digested food from the intestines.
Here used to describe the independent or vegetative
nervous system which manages the automatic regulations of
The body's chemical turnover at complete rest and when
fasting. The basal metabolic rate is expressed as the
amount of oxygen used up in a given time. The basal
metabolic rate (BMR) is controlled by the thyroid gland.
The physicist's calorie is the amount of heat required to
raise the temperature of 1 cc. of water by 1 degree
Centigrade. The dietician's Calorie (always written with a
capital C) is 1000 times greater. Thus when we speak of a
500 Calorie diet this means that the body is being
supplied with as much fuel as would be required to raise
the temperature of 500 liters of water by 1 degree
Centigrade or 50 liters by 10 degrees. This is quite
insufficient to cover the heat and energy requirements of
an adult body. In the HCG method the deficit is made up
from the abnormal fat-deposits, of which 1 lb. furnishes
the body with more than 2000 Calories. As this is roughly
the amount lost every day, a patient under HCG is never
short of fuel.
Of the brain. Cerebral vascular disease is a disorder
concerning the blood vessels of the brain, such as
cerebral thrombosis or hemorrhage, known as apoplexy or
A fatlike substance contained in almost every cell of
the body. In the blood it exists in two
forms, known as free and esterified. The latter form is
under certain conditions deposited in the inner lining of
the arteries (see arteriosclerosis). No clear and definite
relationship between fat intake and cholesterol-level in
the blood has yet been established.
Of the chorion, which is part of the placenta or
after-birth. The term chorionic is justly applied to HCG,
as this hormone is exclusively produced in the placenta,
from where it enters the human mother's blood
and is later excreted in her urine.
A form of oral gratification with which a repressed
sex-instinct is sometimes vicariously relieved. Compulsive
eating must not be confused with the real hunger from
which most obese patients suffer.
Any condition which exists at or before birth.
Two blood vessels which encircle the heart and supply
all the blood required by the heart-muscle.
A yellow body which forms in the ovary at the follicle
from which an egg has been
detached. This body acts as an endocrine gland and plays
an important role in menstruation and pregnancy. Its
secretion is one of the sex hormones, and it is stimulated
by another hormone known as LSH, which stands for luteum
stimulating hormones. LSH is produced in the anterior lobe
of the pituitary gland. LSH is truly gonadotrophic and
must never be confused with HCG, which is a totally
different substance, having no direct action on the corpus
Outer covering or rind. The term is applied to the
outer part of the adrenals but is also used to describe
the gray matter which covers the white matter of the
A synthetic substance which acts like an adrenal
hormone. It is today used in the treatment of a large
number of illnesses, and several chemical variants have
been produced, among which are prednisone and
A great American brain surgeon who described a condition
of extreme obesity associated with symptoms of adrenal
disorder. Cushing's Syndrome may be caused by organic
disease of the pituitary or the adrenal glands but, as was
later discovered, it also occurs as a result of excessive
A primitive and hence very old part of the brain which
lies between and under the two large hemispheres. In man
the diencephalon (or hypothalamus) is subordinate to the
higher brain or cortex, and yet it ultimately controls all
that happens inside the body. It regulates all the
endocrine glands, the autonomous
nervous system, the turnover of fat and sugar. It seems
also to be the seat of the primitive animal instincts and
is the relay station at which emotions are translated into
Any substance that increases the flow of urine.
Abnormal functioning of any organ, be this excessive,
deficient or in any way altered.
An abnormal accumulation of water in the tissues.
Tracing of electric phenomena taking place in the
heart during each beat. The tracing provides information
about the condition and working of the heart which is not
We distinguish endocrine and exocrine glands. The
former produce hormones, chemical regulators, which they
secrete directly into the blood circulation in the gland
and from where they are carried all over the body.
Examples of endocrine glands are the pituitary, the
thyroid and the adrenals. Exocrine glands produce a
visible secretion such as saliva, sweat, urine. There are
also glands which are endocrine and exocrine. Examples are
the testicles, the prostate and the pancreas, which
produces the hormone insulin and digestive ferments which
flow from the gland into the intestinal tract. Endocrine
glands are closely inter dependent of each other, they are
linked to the autonomous nervous system and the diencephalon presides over this whole incredibly complex
A feeling of particular physical and mental well
Any benign new growth of connective tissue. When such
a tumor originates from a muscle, it is known as a myoma.
The most common seat of myomas is the uterus.
Any small bodily cyst or sac containing a liquid. Here
the term applies to the ovarian cyst in which the egg is
formed. The egg is expelled when a ripe follicle bursts
and this is known as ovulation (see corpus luteum).
Abbreviation for follicle-stimulating hormone. FSH is
another (see corpus luteum) anterior pituitary hormone
which acts directly on the ovarian follicle and is
therefore correctly called a gonadotrophin.
See corpus luteum, follicle and FSH. Gonadotrophic
literally means sex gland-directed.
FSH, LSH and the equivalent hormones in the male,
all produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland,
are true gonadotrophins. Unfortunately and confusingly,
the term gonadotrophin has also been applied to the
placental hormone of pregnancy known as human chorionic
gonadotrophin (HCG). This hormone acts on the diencephalon
and can only indirectly influence the sex-glands via the
anterior lobe of the pituitary.
Abbreviation for human chorionic gonadotrophin
High blood pressure.
A condition in which the blood sugar is below normal. It
can be relieved by eating sugar.
Another name for the pituitary gland.
A tentative explanation or speculation on how observed
facts and isolated scientific data can
be brought into an intellectually satisfying relationship
of cause and effect. Hypotheses are useful for directing
further research, but they are not necessarily an
exposition of what is believed to be the truth. Before a
hypothesis can advance to the dignity of a theory or a
law, it must be confirmed by all future research. As soon
as research turns up data which no longer fit the
hypothesis, it is immediately abandoned for a better one.
See corpus luteum.
See basal metabolism.
Severe half-sided headache often associated with
Accumulation of a mucoid substance in the tissues which
occurs in cases of severe primary thyroid deficiency.
In the history of human culture we distinguish the
Early Stone Age or Paleolithic, the Middle Stone Age or
Mesolithic and the New Stone Age or Neolithic period. The
Neolithic period started about 8000 years ago when the
first attempts at agriculture, pottery and animal
domestication made at the end of the
Mesolithic period suddenly began to develop rapidly along
the road that led to modern civilization.
A low concentration of salt in water equal to the
salinity of body fluids.
An inflammation of the veins. When a blood-clot forms
at the site of the inflammation, we
speak of Thrombophlebitis.
A very complex endocrine gland which lies at the base of
the skull, consisting chiefly of an anterior and a
posterior lobe. The pituitary is controlled by the
diencephalon, which regulates the anterior lobe by means
of hormones which reach it through small blood vessels.
The posterior lobe is controlled by nerves which run from
the diencephalon into this part of the gland. The anterior
lobe secretes many hormones, among
which are those that regulate other glands such as the
thyroid, the adrenals and the sex glands.
The after-birth. In women, a large and highly complex
organ through which the child in the womb receives its
nourishment from the mother's body. It is the organ in
which HCG is manufactured and then given off into the
The living substance in plant and animal cells.
Herbivorous animals can thrive on plant protein alone, but
man must base some protein of animal origin (milk, eggs or
flesh) to live healthily. When insufficient protein is
eaten, the body retains water.
A skin disease which produces scaly patches. These
tend to disappear during pregnancy and during the
treatment of obesity by the HCG method.
Of the kidney.
An Indian drug extensively used in the treatment of
high blood pressure and some forms of mental disorder.
The slow infusion of a liquid into the rectum, from
where it is absorbed and not evacuated.
A fusion of the lower vertebrate into the large bony
mass to which the pelvis is attached.
The speed at which a suspension of red blood cells
settles out. A rapid settling out is called a high
sedimentation rate and may be indicative of a large number
of bodily disorders of pregnancy.
A sexual preference for individuals which show certain
traits. If this preference or selection goes on generation
after generation, more and more individuals showing the
trait will appear among the general population. The
natural environment has little or nothing to do with this
process. Sexual selection therefore differs from natural
selection, to which modern man is no longer subject
because he changes his
environment rather than let the environment change him.
Tearing of the lower layers of the skin owing to rapid
stretching in obesity or during pregnancy. When first
formed striae are dark reddish lines which later change
into white scars.
A group of symptoms which in their association are
characteristic of a particular disorder.
A blood-clot in a blood-vessel.
A modern derivative of cortisone.
A product of incomplete protein-breakdown or
utilization in the body. When uric acid becomes deposited
in the gristle of the joints we speak of gout.
Chronic ulceration above the ankles due to varicose
veins which interfere with the normal blood circulation in
the affected areas.
Any animal that has a back-bone.